Friday, May 15, 2020

Biography of Corrie ten Boom, Hero of the Holocaust

Cornelia Arnolda Johanna Corrie ten Boom (April 15, 1892 – April 15, 1983) was a  Holocaust survivor who started a rehabilitation center for concentration camp survivors as well as a global ministry to preach the power of forgiveness. Fast Facts: Corrie ten Boom Known For: Holocaust survivor who became a renowned Christian leader, known for her teachings on forgivenessOccupation: Watchmaker and writer  Born: April 15, 1892 in Haarlem, the NetherlandsDied: April 15, 1983 in Santa Ana, CaliforniaPublished Works: The Hiding Place,  In My Fathers Place,  Tramp for the LordNotable Quote:  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Forgiveness is an act of the will, and the will can function regardless of the temperature of the heart.† Early Life Corrie ten Boom was born in Haarlem, in the Netherlands, on April 15, 1892. She was the youngest of four children; she had a brother, Willem, and two sisters, Nollie and Betsie.  A brother Hendrik Jan died in infancy. Corrie’s grandfather, Willem ten Boom, opened a watchmaker’s shop in Haarlem in 1837. In 1844, he began a weekly prayer service to pray for the Jewish people, who even then experienced discrimination in Europe. When Willem’s son Casper inherited the business, Casper continued that tradition. Corrie’s mother, Cornelia, died in 1921. The family lived on the second floor, above the shop. Corrie ten Boom apprenticed as a watchmaker and in 1922 was named the first woman  to be licensed as a watchmaker in Holland. Over the years, the ten Booms took care of many refugee children and orphans. Corrie taught Bible classes and Sunday school and was active in organizing Christian clubs for Dutch children. Creating a Hideout During the German blitzkrieg across Europe on May 1940,  tanks and soldiers invaded the Netherlands. Corrie, who was 48 at the time, was determined to help her people, so she turned their home into a safe haven for people trying to escape the Nazis. Dutch resistance members carried grandfather clocks into the watch shop. Hidden inside the long clock cases were bricks and mortar, which they used to build a false wall and hidden room in Corrie’s bedroom. Although it was only about two feet deep by eight feet long, this hiding place could hold six or seven people: Jews or members of the Dutch underground. The ten Booms installed a warning buzzer to signal their guests to hide, whenever the Gestapo (secret police) were searching the neighborhood. The hideout worked well for nearly four years because people were constantly coming and going through the busy watch repair shop. But on February 28, 1944, an informant betrayed the operation to the Gestapo. Thirty people, including several of the ten Boom family, were arrested. However, the Nazis failed to find the six people hiding in the secret room. They were rescued two days later by the Dutch resistance movement. Prison Meant Death Corrie’s father Casper, then aged 84, was taken to Scheveningen Prison. He died ten days later. Corrie’s brother Willem, a Dutch Reformed minister, was released thanks to a sympathetic judge. Sister Nollie was also released. Over the next ten months, Corrie and her sister Betsie were shuttled from Scheveningen to Vugt concentration camp in the Netherlands, finally ending in Ravensbruck concentration camp near Berlin, the largest camp for women in German-controlled territories. The prisoners were used for forced labor in farm projects and armament factories. Thousands of women were executed there. Living conditions were brutal, with meager rations and harsh discipline. Even so, Betsie and Corrie conducted secret prayer services in their barracks, using a smuggled Dutch Bible. The women voiced prayers and hymns in whispers to avoid the attention of the guards.   On December 16, 1944, Betsie died at Ravensbruck of starvation and lack of medical care. Corrie later recounted the following lines as Betsies last words: †¦ (we) must tell them what we have learned here. We must tell them that there is no pit so deep that He is not deeper still. They will listen to us, Corrie, because we have been here.† Two weeks after Betsies death, ten Boom was released from the camp due to claims of a clerical error. Ten Boom  often called this occurrence a miracle. Shortly after ten Booms release, all of the other women in her age group at Ravensbruck were executed.   Post-War Ministry Corrie traveled back to Groningen in the Netherlands, where she recuperated in a convalescent home. A truck took her to her brother Willem’s home in Hilversum, and he arranged for her to go to the family home in Haarlem. In May 1945, she rented a house in Bloemendaal, which she converted into a home for  concentration camp survivors, fellow wartime resistance collaborators, and the disabled. She also set up a nonprofit organization in the Netherlands to support the home and her ministry.   In 1946, ten Boom boarded a freighter for the United States. Once there, she began speaking at Bible classes, churches, and Christian conferences. Throughout 1947, she spoke extensively in Europe and became affiliated with Youth for Christ. It was at a YFC world congress in 1948 that she met Billy Graham and Cliff Barrows. Graham would later play a major role in making her known to the world. From the 1950s through the 1970s, Corrie ten Boom traveled to 64 countries, speaking and preaching about Jesus Christ.  Her 1971 book, The Hiding Place, became a best-seller. In 1975, World Wide Pictures, the film branch of the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association, released a movie version, with  Jeannette Clift George in the role of Corrie. Later Life Queen Julianna of the Netherlands made ten Boom a knight in 1962. In 1968, she was asked to plant a tree at the Garden of the Righteous Among the Nations, at the Holocaust Memorial in Israel. Gordon College in the United States awarded her an honorary doctorate in Humane Letters in 1976. As her health deteriorated, Corrie settled in Placentia, California in 1977. She received resident alien status  but curtailed her travel after pacemaker surgery. The next year she suffered the first of several strokes, which reduced her ability to talk and get around by herself. Corrie ten Boom died on her 91st birthday, April 15, 1983. She  was buried at Fairhaven Memorial Park in Santa Ana, California. Legacy From the time she was released from  Ravensbruck until illness ended her ministry, Corrie ten Boom reached millions of people throughout the world with the message of the gospel. The Hiding Place remains a popular and impactful book, and ten Booms teachings on  forgiveness continue to resonate. Her family home in the Netherlands is now a museum dedicated to remembering the Holocaust.   Sources Corrie Ten Boom House. The Museum.  https://www.corrietenboom.com/en/information/the-museumMoore, Pam Rosewell.  Life Lessons from the Hiding Place: Discovering the Heart of Corrie Ten Boom. Chosen, 2004.United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. â€Å"Ravensbruck.† Holocaust Encyclopedia.Wheaton College. Biography of Cornelia Arnolda Johanna ten Boom. The Billy Graham Center Archives.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Becoming Members Of Society By Aaron Devor Essay - 1236 Words

In â€Å"Becoming Members of Society† by Aaron Devor and â€Å"Rethinking Women’s Biology† by Ruth Hubbard, writers both share the same concept of gender roles. The author of these two readings, Devor and Hubbard, addressed the same idea because gender is something that everybody is familiar with and can be found anywhere in our everyday life. In his article, Devor explained that society demands people to perform their gender roles. Moreover, Hubbard also shows that society tries to make us think that women’s biology is a scientific construction. As a result, gender roles create a big impact on influencing the way people thinks about others in our society. Gender roles are the means of becoming a member of society. To become a member of society, one must find where he or she belongs. A way for people to do this is to conform to their given gender identities, as well as behaving and performing them accordingly. As for people who do not abide by these rules, non-conformist, they will be seen as outcasts of society. For instance, in my personal experiences, I have seen guys who were noticeably more feminine than others, and they get treated differently by the majority, such as getting weird looks, getting laugh at, etc. From the moment children are born, they were taught of the ideas of gender. These ideas tell them how they act, look, and think appropriately to their gender roles. An example would be parents giving their children toys and introducing them to colors. Boys are givenShow MoreRelatedRhetorical Analysis on the Article, Becoming Members of Society1162 Words   |  5 PagesRhetorical Analysis (Paper 2) In the article, â€Å"Becoming Members of Society: Learning the Social Meaning of Gender,† the author, Aaron Devor, is trying to convince his audience that gender shapes how we behave and relate to one another. He does this by using an educational approach, describing gender stereotypes, and making cultural references. These rhetorical devices serve his larger goal of getting readers to reflect on how their childhoods formed their genders. â€Å"Maleness and femaleness seemRead MoreThe Male Gender as a Performance in Beer Advertisements Essay812 Words   |  4 PagesAaron Devor in, â€Å"Becoming Members of Society: Learning the Social Meanings of Gender,† argues that gender is a performance. He supports his argument by recognizing how society rewards, tolerates or punishes conformity to or divergence from social norms (widely accepted behaviors set by society). If a male fails to fall into his expected characterization of dominance and aggression or a female fails to act out in passivity and submission, they are at high risk of societal punishment. Michael MessnerRead MoreEssay on Equal and Alike1158 Words   |  5 Pagesis less clear. Aaron H. Devor wrote in his 1989 article, Becoming Members of Society: Learning the Social Meanings of Gender, that due to the structure of American society, â€Å"masculinity thus becomes ‘innately’ valuable and femininity serves a contrapuntal function to delineate and magnify the hierarchical dominance of masculinity† (430). Devor describes the role of femininity in current society as merely a way to put the value and superiority of masculinity into perspective. Devor goes as far toRead MoreWhat Are Gender Roles?1123 Words   |  5 Pagesportrayed by a certain gender identity. In other words, a male and/or female should act and dress as if their gender is supposed to as seen by society. Guys will wear shorts and a T-shirt while girls will wear dresses and skirts; that is just how society sees an individual. Men and women’s gender roles reflect on what others will think in today’s society. Society sees men and women playing their own role. 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Aaron Devor, a professor at University of Victoria, wrote a novel titled Becoming Members of Society: Learning the Social Meanings of Gender. Devor claims that children learn to categorize other people, objects, and themselves based on physical gender cues not genitalia. He mentions a study done by Kessler and McKenna, in theRead MoreThe Picture On The Right1457 Words   |  6 Pagescompletely different. If you look at the first picture on the left, and compare it to the second picture on the right you will see the difference immediately. The picture on the left is from 30 years ago and women were not viewed as strong of members of society that they are today, like the viewed star Kendall Jenner in the picture on the right. If you look at the coloring of the first image it is bland, just a simple black and white image. There is nothing special about it, whereas the picture on

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Logistics and Opertaional Management Google

Question: Critically evaluate methods of planning and organising efficient operations and networking. Analyse the problems of controlling component activities and of controlling quality Critically discuss methods of project evaluation and of scheduling resources? Answer: Introduction: Google is an American MNC. It specializes in products and services related to internet. These are advertising technologies for online operations, cloud computing, software and search. The main objective of Google is to standardize products by keeping it transparent and simple; to eliminate the unnecessary and extraneous, to automate in order to accomplish standard and eliminate loopholes and to outsource when the first three objectives are met. Outsourcing: Outsourcing is a strategy used to save costs. This is done by transferring some portions of their works to other outside suppliers rather than doing it internally (Investopedia, 2003). It may be noted that sometimes it is more affordable and profitable to procure goods from companies outside which has comparative advantage than producing it internally. Example can be cited of organizations like Dell which procures parts of computer from different manufacturers so as to save the costs of production. Another example may be of business houses those who outsource their book keepings to outside accounting firms; as it may incur fewer expanses for the organization in retaining or hiring an in house personnel or book keeping (Vitasek, 2013). Value added: Value added increases either the price of the commodity or its value. Example Motorola mobiles (now owned by Google) now gives an annual free support (Investopedia, 2003). This is a feature of value added. In other words these are enhancements business organizations bestow upon its services and good before offering those to the customers and final consumers. If products are homogenous and that has a fewer difference from that of its rivals, then the business organizations bestows value added (Investopedia, 2003). These added attributes provides customers and final consumers with add on or different features, and they get value in greater sense. Operational performance: Operational performances are some measures to determine how well an organization does. Measures used o determine the performance of organizations can be expense rations, policy terminations, sales performances, outsourcing decisions. With the help of these measures operational performances are measured (Highn.me, 2011). For an operations manager to decide what products and services are to be outsourced depends upon a number of factors related to geography, economics. These factors are, demographics (number of male users, no. of female users, age group), demand (the utility gained from the goods or service), competitors product and price (homogenous products or homogenous products with added attributes). We shall discuss the outsourcing decision matrix first for our better understanding (Rouse, 2015). Process complexities and dynamics Figure: Decision logic of outsourcing products and services As an operational manager, my aim shall be to consider whether outsourcing exhibits strategic importance or not. Also the second point is whether outsourcing contributes to a raised operational performance or do not contribute to operational performance. Interpretation of the matrix: Tasks which are strategically not important but contributing to high performance of operations are irrelevant in outsourcing. This is because it is a waste of time. Example Google can outsource its product Doodle to third party as how the customer values this product has nothing to do with the customers. But it does matter how well Doodle does. The customers wants products that are undamaged, has quick delivery and that has cheap monetary value tied to the product. As stated in economic theory of demand, when products have lesser prices, its demand is higher and vice versa. When an operational manager decides to outsource the products or services, the pre requisite is to find the correct partner for outsourcing. There may be an initial time lag in this process though. Quadrant 1 Low Strategic Importance with High Process Complexity and Dynamics: Here outsourcing should be done even if it does not support the primary objectives of business. These are decisions which are demanding and needs judgment and interventions manually. When automation is opted, it will incur high costs; as frequent or immediate changes of Google products needs money (Outsourcing-web.com, 2015). If it is kept in house, it will cost more to train people about its products. Quadrant 2 Low Strategic Importance with Low Process Complexity and Dynamics: These products can be outsourced because it will not impact the business objectives or they dont require immediate or frequent change, or expertise. This costs less. If investment and space is absent, outsourcing is required. Quadrant 3 High Strategic Importance with Low Process Complexity and Dynamics: This decision is necessary if Google needs success. It can be automated if volume is high particularly in order to gain economies of scale (SiteBoat, 2010). These are low priced high volume products. Example Google advertisements. Packing and branding of Google products can be automated if resource availability is there. One off cost is required and subsequent minor costs for changing is required. Quadrant 4 High Strategic Importance with High Process Complexity and Dynamics: These decisions are at the core of business. The decision is taken by operations manger but activities are done by in house personnel. They are trained according to changing pattern of Google products and services (North, 2011). Thus, this decision needs training and motivation on part of the in house workers to handle this change successfully. Products and services to be outsourced Products and services to be kept in house Google Ad Mob, Google Ad sense, Ad words express, Double click, Google grants, Google, Google search appliances, Motorola mobility LLC, Google aardvark, Google hotel finder, Google flight search, Google scholar, Google translate (Google.co.in, 2015). Google maps, Google search, Google fiber, humming bird (Mohan, 2014). The factors that influence the decision to outsource or to remain in house by using the five performance objectives: Here we are discussing about the Google and the factors that can influence the decision making process about outsource. The five performance objectives are Quality, Speed, Dependability, Flexibility and Cost(Aesthetica Technica, 2010) Quality: In the five performances objective model the quality can be in the first position, as customers think that quality is the most important among the five performances. The Google organization is largely depending on the product that it deals with and if the quality of the product cannot satisfy the customers, than there will be less demand in the market for the product and services. In the performance objective of the Google organization, quality is important, because when the customer buys the product or the services from the organization then quality is the first preference from the customers or from the organization point of view (Wordstream.com, 2015). Quality can create a brand value for the customers. If the customers are satisfied, by dint of word of mouth the quality of the Google products and services shall be known by more customers Speed: For the organization like Google it is very important to maintain the speed regarding to giving the response to the customers, as there are many customers who are using the Google; and if the organization fail to provide response very fast than the customers may not be satisfy. In the modern world many customers use online buying system and for this buying process the customers need fast response. It is very important for the Google organization to make the decision very fast in order to maintain the goodwill of the company. In case of slower of providing the seep of the organization, than it can influence the decision making process of the organization. There are two different affects of speed; they are the external affect and the internal affects. Dependability: The Google organization is largely depending on their customer, and in this case dependability refers to deliver the product or service to the customers on time. It is very necessary that the customers should get the product on time, as delivery of the product on time may increase the value of the Google organization, which is very helpful for the Google organization. Again there are two different affect in dependability; they are the internal and the external affect: The internal affect is that the Google organization can depend on their performance level that it is very fast and it may deliver the product on time to the customers. The external affect is that the customers depend on the organization for the getting the product on time, and it may create the dependency high of the customers. Flexibility: For the manager the word flexibility define so many things, it is the favorite word for the managers because the managers always want that the employees of the organization should be more flexible to their work. The Google organization is also depending on the employees who are working outside the organization, as they the person who use to deliver the product to the customers (RCR Wireless News, 2012). If the outside employees of the Google organization are not flexible in their work; then it also may be the influence for the Google organization, and the organization may not take the decision to whom to hire for the delivery purpose. If the employees of the organization are more flexible in their work; then there is a chance of increasing the number of production with different types of products. Cost: The cost is the most important factor for the very organization, here in his context we are discussing about the Google organization. The four the performance objectives that we discuss in the above are related with the cost, as all the four objectives are follow to reduce the overall cost of the organization. For the Google organization it is important to reduce the cost for making the performance more accurate. The cost is the factor for the organization that it may influence the decision making process of the organization, because if the cost is high for the organization than the profit margin goes down. Risk: The Risk that involve in the decision making process and the recommendation for reducing the risk: Being a manager of the Google organization it is important to make the decision, but there may be some risk in the decision making process of the business. It is obvious that in decision making process may not accurate all the time; it may be positive or negative aspect for the business. The positive aspect includes; profit of the organization, increasing the numbers of customers, increasing the sales and expanding the business in the global market. The negative aspect includes; the decrease in the demand of the product, decrease the numbers of customer and the loss of the company (Making Decisions under Conditions of Risk and Uncertainty, 2015). It is important for the manager of the Google organization to make the strategic planning before making any decision for the company. It includes; setting the goals and the objectives of the organization, analyzing the information etc Some points to reduce the risk in the decision making process: The managers have to identify the risk before making any decision, identifying or risk may help the managers to re-think for the decision. After identifying the risk it is important to understand the risk, because if the managers understand the risk properly then it will be easy for the manager to reduce the risk. The methods that is used to identify the risk should be very systematic and in a correct way, so that the manager can analyze the risk properly. The monitoring quality of the managers is very important for the Google organization, because if the managers do proper monitoring of the project then there is a less chance to make mistake in decision making process. So risk monitoring is very important for the managers to make sure that no one is doing mistake in their respective task. The procedures to make the plan need to be correct, because the correction the plan may reduce the risk which is very important for the organization to regulate the risk. The managers can follow the risk regulation process to make sure that it can reduce the risk. References Aesthetica Technica, (2010). Big Five. [online] Available at: https://graelaws.wordpress.com/today-is-tomorrows-yesterday-so-do-not-delay-just-do-it-now/energising/empowerment/operations-and-process/operations-performance-objectives-the-big-5/ [Accessed 4 Jul. 2015]. Google.co.in, (2015). About Google - Products. [online] Available at: https://www.google.co.in/about/products/ [Accessed 4 Jul. 2015]. Highn.me, (2011). Process/Strategy Matrix for Outsourcing Decisions in Business Management | Highn's Journal. [online] Available at: https://highn.me/processstrategy-matrix-for-outsourcing-decisions-in-business-management/ [Accessed 4 Jul. 2015]. Investopedia, (2003). Outsourcing Definition | Investopedia. [online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/o/outsourcing.asp#ixzz3euUoxEH1 [Accessed 4 Jul. 2015]. Investopedia, (2003). Value Added Definition | Investopedia. [online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/v/valueadded.asp#ixzz3euTBkhEg [Accessed 4 Jul. 2015]. Investopedia, (2003). Value Added Definition | Investopedia. [online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/v/valueadded.asp#ixzz3euVshQwL [Accessed 4 Jul. 2015]. Making Decisions Under Conditions of Risk and Uncertainty. (2015). Boundless. [online] Available at: https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-management-textbook/decision-making-10/conditions-for-making-decisions-77/making-decisions-under-conditions-of-risk-and-uncertainty-374-4877/ [Accessed 4 Jul. 2015]. Mohan, M. (2014). Over 151 Google Products Services You Probably Don't Know. [online] Minterest. Available at: https://www.minterest.org/google-products-services-you-probably-dont-know/ [Accessed 4 Jul. 2015]. North, G. (2011). The Logic of Outsourcing :: The Market Oracle :: Financial Markets Analysis Forecasting Free Website. [online] Marketoracle.co.uk. Available at: https://www.marketoracle.co.uk/Article26415.html [Accessed 4 Jul. 2015]. Outsourcing-web.com, (2015). Google Maps Applications. [online] Available at: https://www.outsourcing-web.com/google_maps_applications [Accessed 4 Jul. 2015]. RCR Wireless News, (2012). Google outsources Motorola Mobility manufacturing in Brazil, China - RCR Wireless News. [online] Available at: https://www.rcrwireless.com/20121212/devices/google-outsources-motorola-mobility-manufacturing-brazil-china-2 [Accessed 4 Jul. 2015]. Rouse, M. (2015). What is operational performance management (OPM)? - Definition from WhatIs.com. [online] SearchManufacturingERP. Available at: https://searchmanufacturingerp.techtarget.com/definition/operational-performance-management-OPM [Accessed 4 Jul. 2015]. SiteBoat, (2010). Google 101: The Ultimate List of Google's Services and Products - SiteBoat. [online] Available at: https://siteboat.com/google-101-the-ultimate-list-of-googles-services-and-products/ [Accessed 4 Jul. 2015]. Vitasek, K. (2013). Googling It and Outsourcing. [online] Vested. Available at: https://www.vestedway.com/googling-it-and-outsourcing/ [Accessed 4 Jul. 2015]. Wordstream.com, (2015). A Google Projects Resting Ground: The Google Graveyard. [online] Available at: https://www.wordstream.com/articles/retired-google-projects [Accessed 4 Jul. 2015].

Thursday, March 12, 2020

Business Models and Systems Essays - Walgreens, Pharmacy

Business Models and Systems Essays - Walgreens, Pharmacy Business Models and Systems BUS/210 February 21, 2014 Business Models and Systems A local business I use frequently is Walgreens. Walgreens, as business commerce, is a blend of retail, pharmacy, and health care, and has a variety of products such as toiletries, beauty products, cleaning supplies, photo processing, and even some hardware items. The stores are small, clean, and convenient. The staff is always friendly and willing to help you locate products. The prices of their products are not always the lowest but the convenience and friendliness of the staff make the shopping experience pleasant and quick. As a business occupation, Walgreens offers a pharmacy and more recently, the Take Care Clinic. The pharmacy has a variety of over the counter medications as well as the ability to fill prescriptions. The pharmacy staff, including the pharmacist, is knowledgeable and willing to take the time to answer your questions without making the customer feel rushed or insignificant for asking a question. Customers can also take advantage of a walk in clinic called the Take Care Clinic and receive health care services like immunizations, blood pressure screenings, and illness treatment. If the reason for the customers visit to the clinic requires a prescription, it can be sent electronically to the pharmacy of choice, and if that happens to be Walgreens, the prescription is ready soon after the appointment is complete. The business organization of Walgreens consists of managers and employees. Managers, store and assistant, assign tasks to the employees and oversee the daily store operations. The employees receive the assigned tasks and complete these tasks, whether it is stocking or running a register. Managers and employees work together to provide a convenient, well-stocked store with a pleasant shopping atmosphere.

Monday, February 24, 2020

Employee rights and employee responsibilities Essay

Employee rights and employee responsibilities - Essay Example Human Resource Management (HRM) Departments face six challenges.First,HRM must plan for organizations,jobs,and people. An organization's top management works with HR managers to seamlessly link resources to organizational strategies and objectives. A company's human resources is a vital, if not the most vital component of the organization, and this human resource pool must function in a way aligned to the organization's goals. Second, HRM must be able to get the required human resources into the organization. New employees need to be recruited, positions must be filled either through new recruits or by transferring or promotion from within the organization. In performing this function, the company through HRM must comply with employment laws, such as the equal opportunity law. Third, HRM should build employee performance. Employees must be trained either formally or informally on methods. They must be motivated to improve their performances through total quality management programs, self-management programs and other programs that enhance the quality of work. Fourth, HRM should reward employees for good performance. Employee appraisal systems should be developed and monitored. Fair and effective ways to reward good performance should be developed and implemented. Direct and indirect compensation programs must be put in place to form part of rewards. Fifth, HRM should oversee its human resources with health and safety programs, good employee relations, participation in collective bargaining with unionized employees, and control employee turnover such that valued employees are kept in the payroll. And sixth, HRM must manage resources at the multi-national or multicultural level. With increasing diversity in the workplace coupled with the globalization of businesses, HRM must be able to integrate HR practices that are applicable in different cultures and legal systems (Burnham, 2003). 2. What are some of the reasons why affirmative action remains controversial Affirmative action involves taking positive steps to increase the representation of women and minorities in areas of employment, education, and business from which they have been historically excluded (SEP, 2005). When affirmative action involves preferential treatment by basis of race, gender, religion or ethnicity, affirmative action generates controversy. While some experts believe that preferential treatment of women and other racial minorities sort of compensates for discrimination against them in the past, other experts believe that preferential treatment of minorities today, benefits individuals who have not experienced past wrongs while burdening individuals who were not responsible for past wrongs, thus tantamount to reverse discrimination. Another reason for the controversy is that the Civil Rights Act provides that no person shall be discriminated upon or denied employment on the basis of sex, race, religion or national origin, but it does not actually mandate affirmative action. And thus, the debate and controversy goes on, since various legal and administrative rules require affirmative action yet this is not grounded on the provisions of the constitution. 3. Compare and contrast three approaches to job analysis: (1) functional job analysis (FJA); (2) the position analysis questionnaire (PAQ); and (3) the critical incident technique (CIT). The functional job analysis (FJA) approach was developed by the U.S. Training and Employment Service. It utilizes an inventory of the various types of functions or work activities that can constitute any job. FJA assumes that each job involves performing certain functions related to data, people and things. The three categories are subdivided to form worker-function scales. The position analysis questionnaire approach (PAQ) is a quantifiable data collection method covering 194 different worker-oriented tasks. Using a five-point scale, the PAQ seeks to determine the degree, if any, to which the different

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Activities in Preparing a New Venture Business Plan Assignment

Activities in Preparing a New Venture Business Plan - Assignment Example The group followed the model of Tuckman’s group development model precisely in the forming stage, where individual tasks maintained the most discussion and all team members were motivated and focused on maintaining good behavior to build acceptance in the group (Tuckman 1965). Group dynamics, overall, were quite positive. Each team member maintained a clear focus on individual tasks and worked cooperatively to produce a high-quality project output. Over the development of the project, group members became accustomed to diverse methods by which each team member performed their tasks and embraced these differences effectively. Whilst there was some level of the challenge during the initial formation of the group (which will be discussed in detail), the team functioned well once individual personalities and attitudes were respected and esteemed. The group followed the model of Tuckman’s group development model precisely in the forming stage, where individual tasks maintain ed the most discussion and all team members were motivated and focused on maintaining good behavior to build acceptance in the group (Tuckman 1965). Group dynamics, overall, were quite positive. Each team member maintained a clear focus on individual tasks and worked cooperatively to produce a high-quality project output. Over the development of the project, group members became accustomed to diverse methods by which each team member performed their tasks and embraced these differences effectively. Whilst there was some level of the challenge during the initial formation of the group (which will be discussed in detail), the team functioned well once individual personalities and attitudes were respected and esteemed. The group met regularly, however, the timeline for these meetings was disparate and dependent on the task deadlines assigned to each team member. If tasks had a three-day deadline, a meeting was scheduled on day four to coordinate all individual work, discuss its relevan ce and quality, and then incorporate it (as a collaborative group) into the final project. Conflicts and challenges The group appeared to follow the linear path in group development, in which conflict began to emerge in the storming stage. Whilst Connors and Caple (2005) suggest that not all groups follow the linear stages precisely, this group appeared to justify Tuckman’s model. It is in the storming stage where hostilities manifest. In one particular instance, two team members felt that the group was not achieving individual task deadlines proficiently and began overly-assertive efforts to try to reallocate tasks to be completed collectively rather than individually. For example, the individual assigned the marketing and promotion task had created initial advertising mock-ups that were not considered relevant to the market segment characteristics the group had collectively agreed upon.